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Indigo began to be grown in England, and Cudbear, a natural dye prepared from a variety of lichens, is patented.Another natural dye, Quercitron, from the inner bark of the North American oak, is patented in 1775.Another example of a natural dye obtained from plants is woad.Until the Middle Ages, Europeans used woad to create a blue fabric dye.This dye was supplanted by indigo, an ancient shrub well known to the Egyptians and Indians.Like woad, its color lay in its leaflets and branches.
If they need no mordants, such as lichens and walnut hulls, they are called substantive dyes.
During the 19 century, the most widely available fabrics were those which had been dyed with madder.
The 'turkey red that was so popular at that time, was based on madder. The madder plant continued to be used for dyeing until the mid-1800s when a synthetic substitute was developed.
Kermes (from the Kermes insect) is identified in the bible book of Exodus, where references are made to scarlet colored linen.
By the 4Purple was made from a mollusk and clothing made from it was so expensive only the royal family could afford it.